Ojas Eye Hospital in Bandra, Kandivali, Mumbai

Rare Retinal Diseases

November 19, 2020

Introduction

The retina is an important structure of the eye. Some of the most common diseases of the retina include retinal detachment, diabetic retinopathy, and macular degeneration. However, there are various other diseases of the retina that are rare.

Rare Retinal Diseases

Following are some of the rare retinal diseases:

Macular Dystrophy: Macula is a structural part of the retina and is very important function wise responsible for clear vision. It helps you to see distance vision like television etc and near vision like reading a book etc. Macular dystrophy is a condition in which there is macular degeneration. The condition is hereditary. It affects vision for colors and night vision.

Retinoschisis: It is a condition that causes a split in the layers of retina resulting in visual dysfunction .It is a genetic condition and is linked to the X chromosome. Because of this, boys are more affected by this condition than girls. If the condition affects the peripheral area, the peripheral vision is lost, and if the central part, i.e. macula, is affected, it results in loss of central vision.

Birdshot Chorioretinopathy: Retina is a layer present in the far end of the eye and is responsible for function of vision. The choroid is the blood vessel layer just beneath the retina. In this condition, there is an inflammation in both the retina and choroid. This disease is difficult to diagnose at an early stage because its symptoms overlap with other eye conditions.

Stargardt’s Disease: It is a type of macular dystrophy resulting in defective vision in children and young adults. It causes significant loss of central vision. The condition affects both the eyes. The other symptoms of this condition are light sensitivity and color blindness.

Retinoblastoma: It is a type of ocular cancer that may be linked to genetics. People with this condition are at risk of developing other types of cancer. This condition usually affects children, but it may also occur sometimes in adults. It causes swelling, redness, and whitening of the eye when illuminated by light.

Coats’ Disease: This is a chronic progressive condition that affects children in the initial ten years of life. However, adults may also be affected with this condition. There is increased risk of retinal detachment in them. In Coat’s disease, the retina often swells because of problems in blood vessels. 

Acute macular neuro-retinopathy: It is a rare disease characterized by the presence of inflammatory lesions on the retina. The disease was first reported in the year 1975. Wedge-shaped, reddish-brown lesions are present that may be seen with the help of red-free photography.

Sickle Retinopathy: Sickle cell retinopathy is a complication of sickle cell disease. It is a vision-threatening disease that causes ischemic events in the retina.

Solar Retinopathy: Solar retinopathy is the condition of the retina caused due to solar eclipse exposure. This condition does not involve the thermal mechanism. The damage to the retina is caused due to photo-oxidative mechanism. Solar retinopathy is caused due to view the solar eclipse without adequate protection to the eye and sun exposure.

Conclusion

Various rare retinal diseases include Coat’s disease, Stargardt’s Disease, retinoblastoma, solar retinopathy, and sickle retinopathy. Most of the diseases affect the eyes and may lead to blindness. If you have any vision changes, consult with the best retinal surgeon in Mumbai.

Ojas Eye Hospital A Center of Excellence for Contoura Vision, Femto Bladefree Lasik in Mumbai, India.