Ojas Eye Hospital in Bandra, Kandivali, Mumbai

Retinal Vein Occlusion

December 7, 2020

Introduction

Retinal vein occlusion is a condition in which the veins in the retina get blocked. It could be the main vein which is the central retinal vein or a branch vein occlusion in the nasal or temporal part of the retina and either in superior or inferior region of the retina. The condition generally occurs in one eye. The patient experiences blurred vision with or without pain. If you experience such symptoms or if there is a sudden occurrence of floaters, consult with the best retinal surgeon in Mumbai.

What Is Retinal Vein Occlusion?

The retinal layer is situated in the back of the eye. Arteries supply blood to the retina while veins take away the blood from the retina. The function of the retina is to convert the light signals and transmit them to the brain in the form of nerve signals. When there is a blockage in the artery or vein, the condition is termed occlusion. Retinal vein occlusion occurs when the vein carrying the blood away from the retina gets blocked affecting the circulation of blood within the retina. Blockage in the blood vessels may result in hemorrhage and fluid leakage.

What Are The Causes Of Retinal Vein Occlusion?

Certain factors increase the risk of retinal vein occlusion. These factors are:

  • The elderly age group are more affected.
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension

What Are The Various Types Of Retinal Vein Occlusion?

Depending upon the type of retinal vein blocked, retinal vein occlusion is divided into the following types:

Central vein occlusion: When the main retinal vein gets blocked, the condition is termed central vein occlusion.

Branch vein occlusion: When the small branches of the retinal vein get blocked, the condition is termed as branch retinal vein occlusion. 

How Central Vein Occlusion Affects Vision?

Central Retinal Vein Occlusion causes blurred vision. Because of the swelling in the central part of the retina, the patient may also experience distorted vision. Some patients have transient symptoms that come and go, while others have a permanent effect on vision. Advanced cases of central occlusion results in various complications such as glaucoma and other problems. The patient may experience pain, itching, and redness in the eyes.

How Branch Vein Occlusion Affect Vision?

Branch vein occlusion may affect the central or peripheral  part of the eye. The patient may experience loss of vision without any pain. However, if the central part of the eye is not affected, the patient may not experience any loss of vision.  This may be due to high blood pressure or diabetes or blood disorders.

How Blood Pressure Causes Retinal Vein Occlusion?

Blood pressure plays an important role in the development of retinal vein occlusion. It damages the lining of the blood vessels and increases the risk of hemorrhage. High blood pressure also enhances the risk of atherosclerosis. Arteries with atherosclerosis are less flexible and thus creating more pressure on the surrounding arteries.

What Is The Treatment For Retinal Vein Occlusion?

There is no permanent cure for retinal vein occlusion. There is no way that a doctor may unblock the veins. However it can be prevented if detected in the pre occlusion stage of the disease. The primary aim of the doctor is to preserve vision and avoid complications. The doctor may prescribe topical drop medication and an injection to reduce the retinal swelling. Other therapies used in retinal vein occlusion are laser surgery and focal laser surgery.

What Are The Complications Of Retinal Vein Occlusion?

Following are the complications of retinal vein occlusion:

Macular edema: Swelling in the macular region of the retina may result in blurred vision. In severe cases, it may lead to vision loss. 

Glaucoma: Because of the blocked veins, new veins develop in various parts of the eye. This may increase intraocular pressure.

Neovascularization: In severe neovascularization (new vessel formation) in the retina, retinal detachment, glaucoma and retinal bleeding may occur that may lead to vision complications.

Vision loss: The condition, if not adequately managed, may result in blindness.

What Is The Effect Of Retinal Vein Occlusion On Daily Activities?

Retinal vein occlusion significantly affects the quality of life. The condition results in blurred vision. In the initial stage of the disease, there is not much effect o the vision. However, as the disease progresses, there is a severe problem with vision. Your ability to judge the distance gets affected, and you may not be able to perform the activity that requires good visual acuity. You may be unable to work on activities needing precision work or other similar jobs.

Conclusion

People with high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, and diabetes are at increased risk for developing retinal vein occlusion. The condition may occur in the main retinal vein or the branches of the retinal vein. Schedule a consultation with the best retina clinic in Mumbai.

Ojas Eye Hospital A Center of Excellence for Contoura Vision, Femto Bladefree Lasik in Mumbai, India.